Water that has chemical and bacterial pollution is usually non-lethal.
But there is a bacteria contained in the water that if finds the ideal conditions to develop and reproduce can bring a lung infection that often proves fatal. It is Legionella Pneumophila, so called because the first time it was discovered it killed 34 legionnaires gathered in Philadelphia. In that case the infection came from the air conditioning system but later it was found that there is even greater danger in the water system linked to hot water production.
There are I.S.S. guidelines, national and regional laws, aimed mainly at hotels, hospitals, nursing homes, retirement homes, schools, offices, prisons etc. which regulates prevention against this particular bacteria. A deep knowledge of general plants, coupled with the consciousness of the water treatment plants allow the interventions that are necessary in order to maintain the safety.
One of the less visible problems of the water is its purity from the bacteriological point of view. In fact, only with an analysis you can determine if there is pollution linked to the presence of bacteria. Because of a lack of water, or rather its non-availability due to breaks in the delivery, in all homes, condominiums, public and private, there are storage systems of various kinds that help to cope with water deficiency. But these "reservoirs", are very often the cause of bacterial pollution for their positioning, their material and their discontinuous use. A careful analysis of the characteristics of water and of the collection systems will allow the choice of the system of prevention and disinfection that should be used.
Although the water should be odorless and tasteless, everyone feels the taste of drinking. But there are some parameters that can change the characteristics of the water and then remove the potability as provided by law 31/2001 (Nitrates, arsenic, THM, bacteria etc...) that are not alerted by the taste.
The Decree Law 31/2001 provides for civil and criminal liability of the owner or manager of the place where the water is used since the awarding body (City, Region, Consortium etc...) gives its responsibility to the counter of the user. It is therefore crucial, in particular for public facilities (hospitals, nursing homes, schools, Hotels, Resorts, Condominiums etc. ...) allowing themselves to prevent any problems that could arise from non-potable water. Chemical and bacteriological analysis can give a picture of the characteristics of the water and allow the choice of a better plant alongside with the necessities, management and financial possibilities.
Each process where water is used can present problems with its features.
For example, in the food industry, the washing water must be potable and in plastic industry cooling water can give incrustations.
But also a heating circuit, like the one we have in our houses, needs an adequate water amount for its purpose.
In general, the presence of a non-treated water can give significant problems of corrosion and fouling, with possible problems to the finished product and to the performance of the plant. This determines increasing costs, risks of unexpected breaks and downtimes.
The knowledge of the problems is crucial in order to solve the ones that are already present and to prevent the possible ones.
An excess of salinity or unwanted products (fluorides, sulphates etc...) may make necessary the use of reverse osmosis systems that permit the production of demineralized water without particular management problems.
Even in the healthcare field, in dialysis, reverse osmosis systems are used in the “biosmosis” mode, because is the safest.
The correct pre-treatment and a targeted sizing will also allow to reduce the costs and have the right water characteristics.
In many situations when well water is used, is possible to encounter an excessive presence of iron, manganese, or ammonia and this may result in the lack of drinking water and in problems of fouling, deposits and encrustations.
In some cases, matched to the excess of iron, there is the presence of iron bacteria, that are difficult to remove and that could cause fast and devastating corrosions
Even in this case is fundamental the proper dimensioning of the plant and the use of the ideal oxidizing agent for these situations.
When we were kids it was nice to play in the streets and then cool off in a fountain that was always functioning. Over time, in order to avoid waste, and because the water quality diminished, fountains scattered in various places have been progressively closed.
Only lately we feel the need to equip our cities with fountains from which is possible to drink and to supply water, refined both at room temperature or refrigerated and even chilled and carbonated.
Adequate knowledge of the characteristics of the water will allow you to choose the most suitable systems.
When you decide to build a swimming pool the choice is generally related to the shape, in what is seen. But it’s like buying a beautiful car without having information about the engine, and we discover that we have a Ferrari powered by Skoda.
In a swimming pool water quality is critical to prevent taking infections, and to avoid the hassle of burning, smell or deposits.
The heart of the pool is formed by the central processing unit and the technical standards (that are very often poorly respected).
These two components allow the appropriate design to the use of the pool.
Also the shape or the games inside the pool may affect the proper treatment, and the management cost are influenced by the quality of the filtration and the type of disinfection used.